Data management is "the development, execution and supervision of plans, policies, programs and practices that control, protect, deliver and enhance the value of data and information assets".
In a scientific, academic setting this means developing plans and policies for how data generated in the laboratory, as a result of experimentation, is stored and saved so it can be used and more easily understood by scientists other than those that originally generated it.
There are a number of definitions for what data is and here are a few of them
Here are some definitions:
From the Merriam-Webster Dictionary
1 : factual information (such as measurements or statistics) used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation the data is plentiful and easily available — H. A. Gleason, Jr. comprehensive data on economic growth have been published — N. H. Jacoby
2 : information output by a sensing device or organ that includes both useful and irrelevant or redundant information and must be processed to be meaningful
3 : information in numerical form that can be digitally transmitted or processed
From the Digital Curation Center
Data, any information in binary digital form, is at the centre of the Curation Lifecycle.
From the Office of Management and Budget
“Research data means the recorded factual material commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research findings”
Across all scientific fields data is generated and the types of data include
Data can also be categorised as "Raw" or "Processed"
Examples of raw data:
Examples of processed data: