Genomics is the study of genomes and their environments. A genome is the set of instructions needed to create an organism.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was a 13-year international effort to discover all the 20,000 to 25,000 human genes, determine the sequence of the 3 billion DNA subunits contained in the human chromosomes, and make this information available for further study.
The discussions that gave rise to the HGP took place beginning in 1985, and were international in scope, involving the United Kingdom, Japan, the countries of the European Union and the United States. The formal announcement of the NIH effort in 1990 can conveniently be taken as marking the start of the HGP and its ending in 2003 with the completion of the human genome reference sequence.
The main conclusions reached in the Battelle study are: